[ToC]

 

Russell P. Balda and Gary C. Bateman, "The Breeding Biology of the Piñon Jay," The Living Bird Eleventh Annual of the Cornell Laboratory of Ornithology, 1972

A SCHEMATIC REPRESENTATION OF THE TEMPORAL SEQUENCE OF EVENTS PRIOR TO NESTING IN THE DONEY PARK FLOCK OF PIÑON JAYS

In the later stages of courtship, Stick Manipulation often preceded the flight of a mated pair away from the flock. The jays performed this display most commonly at the periphery of the flock where courtship feedings were also prevalent. In most cases, the male either initiated the display or performed it alone.