Student S. Bilgin, April 1974, found in Bruce Mallen, Principles of Marketing Channel Management, Lexington Books, 1977


The start of this channel is a backward flow, in the sense that the raw material comes from textile waste--mainly garments which have flowed from the original raw material sources to the primary textile industry, to the garment industry, to institutions, to retailers (with various types of middlemen throughout this chain), and to consumers, who start the backward flow by passing back used garments to the Salvation Army who in turn sells this waste material to rag manufacturers .